Photo is a still image, which is generated by the camera which records an object or event or situation at any given time. Activities related to photo are termed photography. While photo editing or photo manipulation (commonly called Photoshopping) is a technique to change the image or photo to create the illusion of a different result from the original image.
In digital editing, photographs are usually taken with a digital camera and edited directly through the computer. Reversal film (photo or image printed on transparent material), photographic negative or print photo can also be digitized using a scanner.
With the advent of computers, graphics tablets, and digital cameras, image editing software, and so forth, photo manipulation are easier to do with a diverse variety of visual effects. The edited photo can look better, more beautiful and even different from the original image. And current photo manipulation is widely accepted as an art form in the world of photography.
There is a type of technical retouching, which edits for photo restoration or enhancements such as color adjustment, contrast / white balance, sharpness, or remove elements that are likely less good in the photo.
There is also type of creative retouching, which editing is used as a form of art, or for commercial use by making a more creative and attractive image to be displayed to the public. It is usually used in fashion photography, beauty or magazine ads, television and other media.
Photoshopping is the most widely and commonly used technique, either through Photoshop, Paint Shop Pro, Corel PhotoPaint, Pixelmator, Paint.NET or GIMP. Sometimes it is also called retouching, compositing (or splicing). There are positive and negative sides of this activity.
It can be positive of course, if it is used for good purposes such as to beautify the look of personal photos, fashion, illustration journalists and so on. It can also be negative if it is misused for acts of forgery.